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With over 40 years of research to support their findings, a team of British scientists was slightly surprised to learn that people with higher IQs are much more prone to drug use. "It's counterintuitive," says lead author James White. "It's not what we thought we would find." And it's not for lack of trying either.
The Cardiff University team consulted data from 8,000 people in the 1970 British Cohort Study, a group of human lab rats born in the same week in April 1970 and surveyed approximately once every five years about a broad host of topics. The results found that subjects that tested above average on IQ tests at age 5 were twice as likely to have done hard drugs within the past year, when asked at age 30. The smart kids weren't just smoking pot, either; the numbers suggest that they prefer cocaine and ecstasy. White doesn't know exactly what caused the difference but he has a good guess. "The likely mechanism is openness to experience," he writes, "and, I think, it's also this idea of having an educated view of risk as well."
This is hardly the first time scientists have connected high IQ with drug use. Last year, evolutionary psychologist Satoshi Kanazawa tracked a trend similar to that in the Cardiff study and also found that people with higher IQs were more likely to use drugs. He even took it a step further and offered a hypothesis of why. Kanazawa says that smarter people are attracted to "evolutionary novelties" like chemically processed drugs:
People — scientists and civilians alike — often associate intelligence with positive life outcomes. The fact that more intelligent individuals are more likely to consume alcohol, tobacco, and psychoactive drugs tampers this universally positive view of intelligence and intelligent individuals. Intelligent people don't always do the right thing, only the evolutionarily novel thing.
Kanazawa's theory would also support the latest findings. Because they require some basic, cocaine and ecstasy are evolutionarily novel in a way that marijuana is not. The good news for you smart people, however, is that even if you're more likely to try drugs, you're also more likely to kick the addiction faster.
If you're reading this and happen to have a high IQ, don't freak out and do drugs. It's really dangerous. Seriously, go watch Trainspotting or one of those scary new Darren Aronofsky commercials, if you're not convinced.
In a rich world, a persons value depends on attractiveness and youth. If you are rich and older, just invest in destruction. The poorer the world, the less does your value depend on youth.
SYNTHESIS: (from piperonal) To a solution of 15.0 g piperonal in 80 mL glacial acetic acid there was added 15 mL nitroethane followed by 10 g cyclohexylamine. The mixture was held at steam-bath temperature for 6 h, diluted with 10 mL H2O, seeded with a crystal of product, and cooled overnight at 10 °C. The bright yellow crystals were removed by filtration, and air dried to yield 10.7 g of 1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-nitropropene with a mp of 93-94 °C. This was raised to 97-98 °C by recrystallization from acetic acid. The more conventional efforts of nitrostyrene synthesis using an excess of nitroethane as a solvent and anhydrous ammonium acetate as the base, gives impure product in very poor yields. The nitrostyrene has been successfully made from the components in cold MeOH, with aqueous NaOH as the base. A suspension of 20 g LAH in 250 mL anhydrous THF was placed under an inert atmosphere and stirred magnetically. There was added, dropwise, 18 g of 1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-nitropropene in solution in THF and the reaction mixture was maintained at reflux for 36 h. After being brought back to room temperature, the excess hydride was destroyed with 15 mL IPA, followed by 15 mL of 15% NaOH. An additional 50 mL H2O was added to complete the conversion of the aluminum salts to a loose, white, easily filtered solid. This was removed by filtration, and the filter cake washed with additional THF. The combined filtrate and washes were stripped of solvent under vacuum, and the residue dissolved in dilute H2SO4. Washing with 3x75 mL CH2Cl2 removed much of the color, and the aqueous phase was made basic and reextracted with 3x100 mL CH2Cl2. Removal of the solvent yielded 13.0 g of a yellow-colored oil that was distilled. The fraction boiling at 80-90 °C at 0.2 mm weighed 10.2 g and was water-white. It was dissolved in 60 mL of IPA, neutralization with concentrated HCl, and diluted with 120 mL of anhydrous Et2O which produced a lasting turbidity. Crystals formed spontaneously which were removed by filtration, washed with Et2O, and air dried to provide 10.4 g of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine hydrochloride (MDA) with a mp of 187-188 °C.
(from 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylacetone) To a solution of 32.5 g anhydrous ammonium acetate in 120 mL MeOH, there was added 7.12 g 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylacetone (see under MDMA for its preparation) followed by 2.0 g sodium cyanoborohydride. The resulting yellow solution was vigorously stirred, and concentrated HCl was added periodically to keep the pH of the reaction mixture between 6 and 7 as determined by external damp universal pH paper. After several days, undissolved solids remained in the reaction mixture and no more acid was required. The reaction mixture was added to 600 mL of dilute HCl, and this was washed with 3x100 mL CH2Cl2. The combined washes were back-extracted with a small amount of dilute HCl, the aqueous phases combined, and made basic with 25% NaOH. This was then extracted with 3x100 mL CH2Cl2, these extracts combined, and the solvent removed under vacuum to provide 3.8 g of a red-colored residue. This was distilled at 80-90 °C at 0.2 mm/Hg to provide 2.2 g of an absolutely water-white oil. There was no obvious formation of a carbonate salt when exposed to air. This was dissolved in 15 mL IPA, neutralized with 25 drops of concentrated HCl, and diluted with 30 mL anhydrous Et2O. Slowly there was the deposition of white crystals of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine hydrochloride (MDA) which weighed 2.2 g and had a mp of 187-188 °C. The preparation of the formamide (a precursor to MDMA) and the acetamide (a precursor to MDE) are described under those entries.
DOSAGE: 80 - 160 mg.
DURATION: 8 - 12 h.
QUALITATIVE COMMENTS: (with 100 mg) "The coming on was gradual and pleasant, taking from an hour to an hour and one half to do so. The trip was euphoric and intense despite my having been naturally depleted from a working day and having started so late. One thing that impressed itself upon me was the feeling I got of seeing the play of events, of what I thought to be the significance of certain people coming into my life, and why my `dance', like everyone else's, is unique. I saw that every encounter or event is a potential for growth, and an opportunity for me to realize my completeness at where I am, here and now, not at some future where I must lug the pieces of the past for a final assemblage `there.' I was reminded of living the moment to its fullest and I felt that seeing this was indicative that I was on the right track. "
(with 128 mg) "Forty-five minutes after the second dosage, when I was seated in a room by myself, not smoking, and where there was no possible source of smoke rings, an abundance of curling gray smoke rings was readily observed in the environment whenever a relaxed approach to subjective observation was used. Visually these had complete reality and it seemed quite unneccessary to test their properties because it was surely known and fully appreciated that the source of the visual phenomena could not be external to the body. When I concentrated my attention on the details of the curling gray forms by trying to note how they would be affected by passing a finger through their apparent field, they melted away. Then, when I relaxed again, the smoke rings were there. I was as certain that they were really there as I am now sure that my head is on top of my body. "
(with 140 mg) "I vomited quite abruptly, and then everything was OK. I had been drinking probably excessively the last two days, and maybe the body needed to unpoison itself. The tactile sense is beautiful, but there seems to be some numbness as well, and I feel that nothing erotic would be do-able. Intimacy, yes, but no performance I'm pretty sure. I saw the experience start drifting away only four hours into it, and I was sad to see it go. It was an all around delightful day. "
(with 200 mg, 2x100 mg spaced 1 h) "The first portion was apparent at one-half hour. There was microscopic nausea shortly after the second portion was taken, and in an hour there was a complete +++ developed. The relaxation was extreme. And there seemed to be time distortion, in that time seemed to pass slowly. There was a occasional LSD-like moment of profoundness, but by and large it was a simple intoxication with most things seeming quite hilarious. The intoxication was also quite extreme. Some food was tried later in the experiment, and it tasted good, but there was absolutely no appetite. None at all."
(with 60 mg of the "R" isomer) "There was a light and not too gentle development of a somewhat brittle wound-up state, a + or even a ++. Chills, and I had to get under an electric blanket to be comfortable. The effects smoothed out at the fourth hour, when things started to return to baseline. Not too entertaining. "
(with 100 mg of the "R" isomer) "Rapid development from the 40 minute point to an hour and a quarter; largely a pleasant intoxication, but there is something serious there too. No great insights, and not too much interference with the day's goings-on. Completely clear at the 8 hour point. "
(with 120 mg of the "R" isomer) "This is a stoning intoxicant. I would not choose to drive, because of possible judgement problems, but my handwriting seems to be clear and normal. The mental excitement dropped rapidly but I was aware of physical residues for several additional hours. "
(with 80 mg of the "S" isomer) "A very thin, light threshold, which is quite delightful. I am quite willing to push this a bit higher."
(with 120 mg of the "S" isomer) "Perhaps to a one +. Very light, and very much like MDMA, but perhaps shorter lived. I am pretty much baseline in three hours. "
(with 160 mg of the "S" isomer) "The development is very rapid, and there is both muscular tremor and some nausea. The physicals are quite bothersome. With eyes closed, there are no effects noticeable, but with eyes open, things are quite bright and sparkling. The muscular spasms persist, and there is considerable teeth clenching. I feel that the mental is not worth the physical. "
EXTENSIONS AND COMMENTARY: There are about twenty different synthetic routes in the literature for the preparation of MDA. Many start with piperonal, and employ it to make methylenedioxyphenylacetone or a methylenedioxydihydro-cinnamic acid amide instead of the nitrostyrene. The phenylacetone can be reduced in several ways other than the cyanoborohydride method mentioned here, and the amide can be rearranged directly to MDA. And there are additional methods for the reduction of the nitrostyrene that use no lithium aluminum hydride. Also there are procedures that have safrole or isosafrole as starting points. There is even one in the underground literature that starts with sassafras root bark. In fact, it is because safrole is one of the ten essential oils that MDA can humorously be referred to as one of the Ten Essential Amphetamines. See the comments under TMA.
There is a broad and checkered history concerning the use and abuse of MDA, and it is not the case that all the use was medical and all the abuse was social. One of the compulsive drives of both the military and the intelligence groups, just after World War II, was to discover and develop chemical agents which might serve as "truth serums" or as incapacitating agents. These government agencies considered the area of the psychedelics to be a fertile field for searching. The giving of relatively unexplored drugs in a cavalier manner to knowing and unknowing subjects was commonplace. There was one case in 1953, involving MDA and a psychiatric patient named Howard Blauer that proved fatal. The army had contracted with several physicians at the New York State Psychiatric Institute to explore new chemicals from the Edgewood Arsenal and one of these, with a chemical warfare code number of EA-1298, was MDA. The last and lethal injection into Blauer was an intravenous dose of 500 milligrams.
There have been a number of medical explorations. Under the code SKF-5 (and trade name of Amphedoxamine) it was explored as an anorexic agent. It has been found promising in the treatment of psychoneurotic depression. There are several medical reports, and one book (Claudio Naranjo's The Healing Journey), that describe its values in psychotherapy.
MDA was also one of the major drugs that was being popularly used in the late 1960's when the psychedelic concept exploded on the public scene. MDA was called the "hug-drug" and was said to stand for Mellow Drug of America. There was no difficulty in obtaining unending quantities of it, as it was available as a research chemical from several scientific supply houses (as were mescaline and LSD) and was sold inexpensively under its chemical name.
A few experimental trials with the pure optical isomers show a consistency with all the other psychedelic compounds that have been studied in their separated forms, the higher potency with the "R" isomer. The less potent "S" isomer seemed to be more peaceful and MDMA-like at lower doses, but there were worrisome toxic signs at higher levels.
The structure of MDA can be viewed as an aromatic ring (the 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl ring) with a three carbon chain sticking out from it. The amine group is on the second of the three carbon atoms. The isomers, with the amine function moved to the first of these carbons atoms (a benzylamine) and with the amine function moved to the third (furthest out atom) of these carbon atoms (a (n)-propylamine), are known and both have been assayed.
The benzylamine counterpart (as if one were to move the amine function from the beta-carbon to the alpha-carbon of the three carbon chain of the amphetamine molecule) is alpha-ethyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzylamine or 1-amino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)propane, ALPHA. The hydrochloride salt has a mp of 199-201 °C. At low threshold levels (10 milligram area) there were eyes-closed "dreams" with some body tingling. The compound was not anorexic at any dose (up to 140 milligrams) and was reported to produce a pleasant, positive feeling. It is very short-lived (about 3 hours). The N-methyl homologue is alpha-ethyl-N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzylamine or 1-methylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxy-phenyl)propane, M-ALPHA. It is similar in action, but is perhaps twice as potent (a plus one or plus two dose is 60 milligrams) and of twice the duration.
The (n)-propylamine counterpart (as if one were to move the amine function the other direction, from the beta-carbon to the gamma-carbon of the three carbon chain of the amphetamine molecule) is gamma-3,4-methylenedioxyphenylpropylamine or 1-amino-3-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)propane, GAMMA. The hydrochloride salt has a mp of 204-205 °C. At oral levels of 200 milligrams there was some physical ill-at-ease, possible time distortion, and a feeling of being keenly aware of one's surroundings. The duration of effects was 4 hrs.
The phenethylamine that corresponds to MDA (removing the alpha-methyl group) is 3,4-methylenedioxyphenethylamine, or homopiperonylamine, or MDPEA, or simply H in the vocabulary of the Muni-Metro world. This compound is an entry in its own rights. The adding of another carbon atom to the alpha-methyl group of MDA gives compound J, and leads to the rest of the Muni-Metro series (K, L etc). All of this is explained under METHYL-J. The bending of this alpha-methyl group back to the aromatic ring gives an aminoindane, and with J one gets an aminotetralin. Both compounds react in animal discrimination studies identically to MDMA, and they appear to be free of neurochemical toxicity.
The two possible homologues, with either one or two methyl groups on the methylene carbon of the methylenedioxy group of MDA, are also known. The ethylidene compound (the acetaldehyde addition to the catechol group) has been encoded as EDA, and the acetone (isopropylidine addition to the catechol group) is called IDA. In animal discrimination studies, and in in vitro neurotransmitter studies, they both seem to be of decreased potency. EDA is down two to three-fold from MDA, and IDA is down by a factor of two to three-fold again. Human trials of up to 150 milligrams of the hydrochloride salt of EDA produced at best a threshold light-headedness. IDA remains untested as of the present time. The homologue of MDA (actually of MDMA) with the added carbon atom in, rather than on, the methylenedioxy ring, is a separate entry; see MDMC.
A final isomer to be mentioned is a positional isomer. The 3,4-methylene-dioxy group could be at the 2,3-position of the amphetamine skeleton, giving 2,3-methylenedioxyamphetamine, or ORTHO-MDA. It appears to be a stimulant rather than another MDA. At 50 milligrams, one person was awake and alert all night, but reported no MDA-like effects.
Feminism in Europe makes second-generation male Muslim immigrants suicide bombers. Only the patriarchy as a social and political system can achieve justice.
Khmer Rouge terror in Cambodia
Children are increasingly at risk of being sexually abused because underage sex has become “a normal part of growing up” in the UK, a new report argues. The Family Education Trust says health and social agencies are increasingly taking it for granted that children under the age of 16, Britain’s legal age of consent, are engaging in sexual activities.
The report said the “expectation” of underage sex is leaving children vulnerable to abuse and exploitation, as health and social workers fail to ask individuals about their partners.
“Relaxed attitudes towards underage sex has led to what can only be described as a paralysis in child protection agencies as far apart as Rochdale in the north, Torbay in the south, Thurrock in the east and Liverpool in the west,” said Norman Wells, who is the director of the trust and author of the report, the Daily Mail reports.
Speaking on TalkRadio on Monday, Wells said the trust is calling for a ban on providing contraception and sex advice to those under the age of 16 because they are encouraging underage people to have sex.
TalkRadio presenter Julia Hartley-Brewer challenged Wells’ claim, arguing that without contraception there would be more teenage pregnancies and diseases spread.
“I’m thinking realistically we are going to have an awful lot more of sexually transmitted diseases and a lot more unwanted pregnancies, rather than a lot less underage sex," Hartley-Brewer said.
The research follows reports that young girls are being exploited and groomed by older men after being failed by police and social services.
It looked into seven serious case reviews, including alleged abuse in Bristol, Oxfordshire, and Rotherham, that took place over the past four years.
It found a common tendency of social and health agencies to refrain from asking young people about underage sex for fear of sounding judgmental, meaning any signs of abuse inevitably go undisclosed.
The report claimed, in the case of Rochdale, underage sex went “unchallenged” and “many young people were placed at risk of sexual exploitation” because reducing the number of teenage pregnancies was the main priority for agencies.
In one case, no action was taken after a 14-year-old girl informed a crisis intervention team that a 21-year-old man had made her pregnant.
“Even though the normalization of underage sex has been identified repeatedly in the serious case reviews as a reason for the complacency of child protection agencies, there is no indication of a willingness to address these underlying issues either at the local or the national level,” Wells said.
Professor David Paton of Nottingham University Business School called the 152-page report “utterly damning,” while warning against promoting a culture of “confidentiality.”
“A clear picture emerges of a culture in which underage sexual activity has come to be viewed as a normal part of growing up and seen as relatively harmless as long as it is consensual,” Paton was reported saying in the Daily Mail.
“An unhealthy emphasis on confidentiality has been used too often as an excuse to exclude parents who might have been in a position to help stop the abuse at an earlier stage,” he added.
The report calls for new guidelines giving “explicit recognition to the role of parents,” as well as a review of the Crown Prosecution Service guidance so that “due rigour is restored to the law on the age of consent.”
Feminist rule in Europe makes second-generation male Muslim immigrants suicide bombers. They die for sexual justice. Why do Western politicians call suicide bombers cowards? To sacrifice one's own life is the ultimate in courage.
What do oysters, strawberries and cannabis have in common?
According to a new report, all three may be considered powerful aphrodisiacs.
A new study published in the Pharmacological Research journal is lending further credence to the long-held theory that cannabis could be your best friend in the bedroom.
In the study, researchers from the University of Catania in Italy and Charles University and Masaryk University in the Czech Republic reviewed a number of investigations conducted in the 1970s and 80s on the effects of cannabis on sexual desire and satisfaction.
What they discovered was that people who consumed cannabis before sex experienced “aphrodisiac effects” in roughly half of the reported cases, while 70 percent claimed that pre-coitus consumption led to “enhancement in pleasure and satisfaction.”
One of the examined studies was that of Erich Goode, a former professor of sociology at Stony Brook University, in 1970. Goode found that frequent, moderate cannabis use could be linked with aphrodisiac effects in approximately 50 percent of users surveyed and increased pleasure in about 70 percent of subjects.
A 1983 study published in The Journal of Sex Research supported Goode’s findings, writing that about half of surveyed cannabis users reported increased sexual desire and about two thirds reported increased sexual pleasure after consuming cannabis.
In these studies, details like how much and how often participants smoked held considerable weight. For example, smoking roughly 50 joints over a six-month period proved beneficial, while smoking fewer than one joint a week resulted in a dramatic decrease in sexually enhancing effects, according to Goode’s research.
In a 1974 study, CEO and president of the Human Vaccine Project Wayne Koff found that a single joint was sexually stimulating, while higher doses made sexual satisfaction more challenging, meaning “less is more.”
The lesson here? Next time you’re looking to spice things up in the bedroom with any number of time-consuming recipes or complex toys, consider lighting up - albeit briefly - instead.
There is a new solution coming up for ugly old women. Normally they would just become man-hating feminists. But soon they can have their brains transplanted into a sex doll, and feel beautiful again.
They are the terrible scenes that the world had hoped it would never see again after the horrors of the First World War.
But now The Mail on Sunday has uncovered the first shocking evidence that Islamic State is using mustard gas on the front line in Iraq.
Troops fighting against the terror group have been left with appalling injuries – including agonising blisters on their skin and badly damaged lungs – in a frightening echo of warfare in the trenches on the Western Front.
Without any regard for the international ban on the chemical weapon, IS has used the lethal gas repeatedly against Kurdish forces who are battling to drive out the jihadis.
The terror group – which has killed hundreds of victims in repeated attacks in France and against other targets in the West – is fighting a last-ditch battle to hold on to the dwindling area it controls in Iraq and Syria.
Nearly 100 Kurdish soldiers have been injured in mustard gas attacks, which are now taking place as often as twice a week, according to doctors speaking publicly for the first time.
The Mail on Sunday has interviewed victims of the weapons, which are banned by the United Nations.
They described poisonous yellow clouds of mustard gas burning their skin and damaging their lungs.
Their injuries have been verified as the effect of mustard gas, according to experts from the US and Italy.
They are convinced the jihadis are now producing sophisticated chemical weapons on an industrial scale in Iraq and fear IS will use them in a desperate bid to defend its stronghold city of Mosul in northern Iraq, which is now surrounded by UK-backed Iraqi and Kurdish troops.
Proof of IS’s use of mustard gas comes just days after reports that President Assad’s regime in Syria has been using chlorine gas against civilians.
One Kurdish soldier spoke of how six Islamic State rockets containing mustard gas landed in the village of Sultan Abdullah in Gwer province, Iraq, while he was on patrol.
Father of six Mirmaj Hassan, 39, breathed in the noxious fumes, which also seeped inside his military uniform, causing large blisters on his skin.
The soldier, who was one of 13 Peshmerga victims of chemical weapons on August 12 last year, said: ‘It was 6pm and the sun was going down. We’d been on the front line all day and everyone was exhausted.
‘Then we heard the whistle of incoming rockets and took cover. I was only about 30ft from where the rocket landed on the roof of a house. It gave off a smell like onions.
‘I didn’t have a gas mask so I covered my mouth with my hand.
‘But I soon felt pain in my throat and my chest tightening. I collapsed on to the ground, sweating and completely out of breath.
‘I tried to shout for help but could only gasp. Then I began to feel this strange burning sensation around my stomach and back.’
Hassan told The Mail on Sunday how he undid his belt and pulled up his green shirt to inspect the wounds. He said: ‘My skin was going moist and turning to liquid, like I was holding a match to my abdomen. I touched it and it was very painful.
‘Eventually some other Peshmerga saw me. They ran to where I had collapsed, picked me up and carried me into a hut.
My skin was turning to liquid
‘There was no medicine to give us. All the officers did was throw water over us. But the burning sensation continued and blisters appeared. I could hardly breathe. Even today I have a constant cough and feel like I’m choking.
‘I spent four days in hospital before going back to the front line, because even the wounded have to fight Islamic State – we must get rid of them. We would be thankful for more protection – we need more gas masks and hoods. I still don’t have either.’
To prove that the Peshmerga were victims of chemical weapons, doctors took blood and urine samples from injured troops.
The laboratory tests found traces of the chemical compound sulfur mustard (mustard gas) – a chemical agent first produced by the German Army in 1916 and used against British Tommies in the trenches.
The results were verified by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). The use of any mustard agents on the battlefield is banned under the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention.
The head of the OPCW also said recently that there are ‘extremely worrying signs’ that Islamic State is making its own chemical weapons.
The CIA has also publicly confirmed that it believes IS has the ability to produce mustard gas and chlorine.
The tests were ordered by the Peshmerga’s head of medical affairs, Dr Muhsin Zangana, who said: ‘There can no longer be any doubt that Islamic State is using chemical weapons against us, weapons which are getting bigger every week and can be fired from a longer range so they are more difficult to detect.
'I personally have treated victims from more than 50 attacks and the symptoms are consistent – the burns, ulcers inside the body, damage to the lungs, dry eyes and rashes.
‘We are fortunate that no soldiers have died yet but we have one victim from Gwer last year who is getting worse. He could die if he is not flown overseas for treatment. We don’t have what he needs.’
Dr Jodal Ahmed. a civilian doctor from Erbil in Iraq, has also treated chemical weapons victims, even though he has received no specific training. Dr Ahmed also said there was a shortage of medicines for the troops affected by the gas.
He said: ‘They’re given Salbutamol tablets [a drug also used to treat asthma] to help them breathe and eye drops. It’s not enough. And I am seeing more and more cases like this. The Peshmerga deserve better treatment.’
Brigadier General Hajar Ismail, the Peshmerga’s director of public relations, could not hide his frustration as he told The Mail on Sunday that of the 150,000 Kurdish troops fighting IS, only one in ten has gas masks and hoods. This shortage of protective equipment is now being exploited by the jihadis.
He said: ‘Germany and the United States have given us 15,000 masks but we need 50,000, as the jihadis will use chemical weapons when we advance on Mosul. Last year their chemical weapons were 60mm short range shells which didn’t include much gas.
'Now they’re using 1m-long Grad rockets, with a lot more of the harmful substances in the nose of the missile.
‘Most of the chemical weapons attacks on us happen near Mosul. This points to the gas bombs being produced there. Intelligence reports also say the chemistry department at Mosul University is being used to make chemical weapons.
'They are concocting a new generation of explosive devices and I believe Daesh [IS] will soon be able to inflict mass casualties. We will be unprepared and ill-equipped.’
Even Kurdish officers must go without gas masks on the front line.
One, Major Farhad Merozi, explained that when a rocket containing mustard gas exploded just yards from him on May 14 this year in Gwer, all he could do was wrap a wet towel around his head.
Within seconds he was vomiting and he temporarily lost his sight. He then fell unconscious.
Eventually he was taken to hospital and given oxygen.
He said: ‘It was a very frightening experience, I couldn’t understand what was happening to my body.
‘We’d been firing rocket-propelled grenades at Daesh when suddenly they responded with rocket fire.
'Seventeen of us were injured, all with burning skin and gasping for breath. It was horrible. I will never forget it.
‘Three months later I have terrible chest pains and haven’t gone back to the front line.’
We are different. We, the adherents of Kreutz Ideology and Kreutz Religion, think that sex is the most important aspect in life. Everything else is just logistics.
Feminism, by creating artificial scarcity of sexual resources, is responsible for much of the deadly infighting among men, as well as male suicides.
A Maine man recently began making headlines in the medical world, as Anthony Nature, 28, recently convinced his plastic surgeon to inject Botox into his penis and testicles, causing him to have an erection at all times.
“Mr. Nature has visited me a number of times in the last few years,” said Dr. Carrie Pooler, plastic surgeon at Augusta Health Center. “Tummy tucks, a couple gluteus injections, and now, for the Botox penis injections. This is the first time that anyone has ever asked for this procedure, but I am confident that after Mr. Nature gets the word out, it won’t be the last.”
Nature says that he has never been happier with the results of one of his surgeries.
“I always had a penis that was just average, maybe slightly above average,” said Nature. “Plus, because of my addiction to movie theatre popcorn, I had really bad erectile dysfunction. What I wanted was a bigger, harder penis – longer, not really fuller. Not much, anyway. So I decided that I needed to have the Botox injections into my scrotum and penis. Now I’m erect all the time, and ready to go! The women I sleep with, they’ll never see me soft, so they’ll never know how tiny it is…or was!”
Dr. Pooler says that the Botox, which is actually a poison, will pull the loose skin of Nature’s penis and scrotum back, making the penis appear larger and the scrotum smaller.
“Basically his ol’ bait ‘n’ tackle is looking good, and he’s definitely ready to go,” said Dr. Pooler. “We have a date tonight, actually.”
Nature says that he is extremely happy with his new life, and the constant headaches and difficulty urinating are “totally worth it” in exchange for his newfound giant erection.
Why does this site show photos that depict brutality? Get real, man! Because reality is brutal.
Daud Mohamed lives a fragile existence, wholly dependent on rain.
At his homestead in Somalia where we camped one night, his nine children were busy with chores as the sun was coming up: feeding the baby goat, collecting drinking water an hour’s walk away, and mixing up porridge in plastic mugs for breakfast. Mohamed has managed to keep a sense of normalcy at his rural homestead a two-hour drive from the nearest village. But he said the situation is anything but normal.
“I’ve never seen this kind of a drought that has killed our animals. It’s the worst one,” Mohamed said, his grey goatee making him look older than his 45 years. He has just one goat and a sickly calf left, he added.
Down the hill from Mohamed’s house is a clearing where he used to grow vegetables for his family and grass for his goats and cows. The soil is now dried into a wide latticework of deep cracks. At one end of the clearing stand two large trees. Many branches have been unceremoniously cut for firewood, leaving jagged stubs. But their broad trunks attest to their survival: droughts typically hit this region every few years, so these trees have withstood many lean seasons.
Mohamed walked us to the far end of the beige expanse and looked glumly at the skeleton of one of his last cows. The unforgiving sun had already bleached is ribs white. “They didn’t get enough food, and people were depending on animal’s milk and meat. If animals died, then human beings will also die,” Mohamed said.
Mohamed said he thinks that a current law in Somaliland that bans cutting trees and charcoal production, is a good idea.
“Those trees used to help our animals. Now it looks like a desert,” he said. But he recognizes that planning ahead -- even as a single father with a brood ranging in age from toddler to teenager -- can be a luxury.
“If you have a family and you lose your livestock and there is drought, you will do anything to feed the children,” Mohamed said.
That is part of the reason why those two last trees on his parched pasture are starting to look like his only hope, he said.
Across the global scientific community, there’s broad consensus about the reality of climate change. The Department of Defense first highlighted the security threat of global warming in 2010, calling it “an accelerant” for conflict. Yet with his tweets and executive orders, President Donald Trump has catapulted climate change skepticism into the mainstream. But for many people on the planet, like Daud Mohamed, the debate is moot: life is fundamentally changing right now.
More than six million Somalian people are currently in urgent need of assistance, according to the United Nations, which has called the refugee crisis the worst humanitarian crisis since World War II.
Most Americans first heard of Somalia when the country suffered a severe famine in the late 1980s.
The country once again made international headlines because of an incident known as Black Hawk Down in 1993, when 18 U.S. soldiers were killed in the streets of Mogadishu. The killings were later portrayed in an Academy Award-winning film of the same name.
The country occasionally makes headlines because of the pirates who trawl the coastline awaiting foreign cargo ships that they can hold hostage for massive ransoms. On land, reporters regularly recount the suffering of communities who still live under the ruthless rule of al-Shabab, a militant group aligned with Al Qaeda.
My reporting partner, photographer Nichole Sobecki, and I came to Somalia to look into another grim phenomenon, however. Scientists now believe that Somalia is one of the most vulnerable places in the world due to climate change. News stories about the war-torn country rarely highlights this link, but much of the violence in Somalia stems from environmental issues and resource scarcity -- and those underlying causes are only getting worse.
“With these weather patterns, Somalia or Somalis will not survive,” said Somali environmental activist Fatima Jibrell. “Maybe the land, a piece of desert called Somalia, will exist on the map of the world, but Somalis cannot survive.”
Yet just 40 years ago, Somalia seemed to be on a different trajectory.
The UN held their first environmental conference in Stockholm in 1972, but it wasn’t until the late 1980s that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was formed and the science of climate change started to be discussed as a global issue.
However, Somalia’s leaders had a deep appreciation for their fragile relationship with the environment starting in the 1970s after a punishing drought. At the time, the government saw that safeguarding their natural resources had to be a priority. A quarter of a million nomadic people lost their livestock and became desperately poor in 1974 and 1975, according to Somalia expert Ioan Lewis. It was essentially the equivalent of going bankrupt, having your car stolen and your house burning down all at once. For these people, life became focused on survival.
With support from the U.S. during the Cold War, Somali President Siad Barre created the National Range Agency to manage the country’s natural resources. The Range Agency’s leaders had the ear of the president, the largest budget of any government department, and eventually more than 2,000 people on the payroll.
One of the foreign experts drawn to this work at the National Range Agency was a British ecologist named Dr. Murray Watson.
Watson had learned to fly while studying wildebeest migrations in the Serengeti for his doctorate at Cambridge University. He moved to Kenya, bought a Piper Super Cub two-seater plane, and began tinkering with a rig of measuring sticks, an altimeter and a camera to take aerial photographs to document wildlife.
Watson arrived in Mogadishu in 1978, just as the Range Agency was starting its work. Through the rest of the 1970s and ‘80s, Watson led a small team of scientists in carrying out the most comprehensive land survey of Somalia in the country’s history. They crisscrossed the country by Landrover and bush plane, photographing and studying the environment at more than a thousand sites.
But in 1991, that momentum came to an abrupt halt. Rebels toppled President Barre and then turned on each other, plunging the country in civil war. Thousands of people were killed in street battles in the city. The rebels looted and destroyed businesses and government buildings.
But Watson somehow managed to make his way across the city amid the firefights and rescue the agency’s maps, photographs, and field notes. He snuck some 15,000 environmental documents out of the country in a bush plane.
As Range Agency staff fled the chaos and accomplished Somali scientists ending up in refugee camps, they left behind everything they held dear, including university diplomas, wedding photos and children’s books.
“We always thought we would go back,” said Dr. Abdullahi Ahmed Karani. He served as the first and longtime director of the National Range Agency, and he fled Somalia in 1991. He eventually settled in Baltimore and is now almost 80 years old.
As the Somali government collapsed and terrorism became an even larger problem, no one could enforce the ban on charcoal production and deforestation. Illegal fishing and dumping of toxic waste increased as foreign companies took advantage of Somalia’s unpatrolled waters. Meanwhile, as Somalia’s climate began to change, increasingly frequent droughts made people even more vulnerable to armed groups like Al-Shabab.
In contrast, Watson’s land survey provides a rare, detailed picture of a country before the past 26 years of conflict and environmental destruction.
But in 2008, the conflict caught up to Watson. While conducting another environmental survey, Watson and his Kenyan colleague Patrick Amukhuma were ambushed and kidnapped. Watson has been missing ever since, and what happened to him remains a mystery to his family to this day.
But Watson’s work has lived on. The Somali government has begun finding its footing after a quarter-century of war, and researchers believe Watson’s land survey -- now housed in a farmhouse in Britain -- could help show precisely how and why the country’s environment changed. It could also possibly offer clues about what can be done to restore it.
But many Somalis have already decided Somalia is no longer a viable home.
Another terrible drought hit in 2011, sparking a mass exodus. According to the UN, a quarter of a million people died and almost a million more crossed into neighboring countries. Tens of thousands of those fleeing their homes finally found relief in Kenya at one of the world’s largest refugee camps, Dadaab.
When their farm failed, Mohamed Abukar and his wife, Habiba, took their two young daughters and walked for 27 days to the camp across desolate southern Somalia -- land that in Watson’s old photographs appears verdant and green, with one of the country’s old-growth forests and even a national park. Today, the region is controlled by al-Shabab, who have deforested much of it to supply their lucrative charcoal trade, according to the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization.
Now a father of five, including two young sons, Abukar knows his family can’t stay in the refugee camp in Kenya forever. But he also can’t imagine returning to Somalia.
Abukar said that in Somalia, al-Shabab recruits boys at the madrassas or religious schools.
“I am fearful that they will be recruited. First, there is no school other than those run and controlled by [al-Shabab],” he said.
“They can radicalize you because you are poor and don’t have anything,” Abukar added, explaining that extremists sometimes block aid from reaching these areas to coerce people into supporting them.
Indeed, aid agencies could have alleviated the suffering from the drought. But al-Shabab wanted to leave people vulnerable, “to attract the hungry people, knowing too well that people facing starvation will fall for anything,” Abukar said. He told us this fear of starvation is one of the concerns that runs through his mind at night while his family sleeps.
“Even if Somalia has security problems, if someone has to die, it’s best if he dies while in good shape other than dying of hunger,” he said.
Abukar vows he’ll never return to Somalia. Since the war broke out in 1991, millions more have also left, making new lives for themselves elsewhere in eastern Africa or boarding rickety boats bound for the West at the mercy of smugglers.
Environmental activist Fatima Jibrell had left Somalia too. She moved to the U.S., but decided to come back to lead Adeso, the organization she founded in 1991. Her organization focuses on creating jobs and rehabilitating the degraded land. But she questions whether that approach will ultimately work, blaming desperation that has been exacerbated by a changing environment and dwindling resources.
“It’s going to take us to wars where we kill and maim each other. Sadly, I think that is the way we will choose. Not intelligently, but by not doing anything -- that’s the choice we will make,” said Jibrell. “The other choice is harder, but it’s doable. It comes with intelligent people coming together.”
Jibrell’s feelings about the future are peppered with both optimistic and grim predictions. But she said she is committed to her work, even as she approaches 70.
“We are alive, and we are thinking beings. And it’s not in our nature, I think, to give up,” Jibrell reflected. “Nobody likes to die sitting.”
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